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Kresy Family

​T H E   H I S T O R Y    O F   K R E S Y
Osady - Military Settlements 1921-1940​​​

Translation from the book  
Z Kresów Wschodnich R.P. Wspomnienia z Osad Wojskowych 1921-1940 
(From: The Eastern Borderlands of Poland, Memories of Military Settlements 1921-1940)
Pub: Ognisko Rodzin Osadników Kresowych (OROK) 

(Association of the Families of the Borderland Settlers) 
London, UK. 1992 and 1998
ISBN 1 872286 33 X 



The military settlement (osadnictwo wojskowe) of the Eastern Borderlands has a permanent place in the history of the Second Republic of Poland though its effect was limited to a group of people of approximately 9,000 soldiers who served their country in the battle for independence during the period of 1914-1920. The idea of settlements in the Borderlands was born in the hot days of August 1920 and received legal backing through a bill passed by the Sejm (Parliament) on 17 December of that same year.

Extracts from the Act of the Parliament of the Republic of Poland 
ACT nr 1 17 December 1920 re: taking land in certain districts of the Republic of Poland into State ownership
Article 6. This Act shall apply in the following districts in accordance with the administrative divisions used to date:
1) Brześć, 2) Prużana, 3) Wołkowysk, 4) Słonin, 5) Nowogródek, 6) Baranowicze, 7) Wilejka, 8) Dzisna, 9) Nieśwież, 10) Łuniniec, 11) Pińsk, 12) Kobryń, 13) Włodzimierz, 14) Kowel, 15) Łuck, 16) Równe, 17) Dubno, 18) Sarny, 19) Krzemieniec, 20) Ostroga, 21) Grodno, 22) Lida.

ACT nr 2 17 December 1920 re: the granting of land to soldiers from the Polish Army
Article 2. The following shall be entitled to obtain land free of charge:
war invalids and Polish army soldiers who fought with particular distinction,
soldiers who volunteered for the Polish army and saw service on the front.

Article 3.All other invalids and soldiers who have skills in land cultivation can, depending on the resources held, obtain land for payment.

The bill soon met with aggressive opposition in the Sejm as well as attacks from the press. Various groups that criticized this legislation, which was supported by Józef Piłsudski, (Marshal Piłsudski was Military dictator of Poland at the time) saw in the military settlement of the Borderlands a threat to their political and/or economic agendas. After two years, the operation of the military settlement of the Eastern Borderlands was suspended in March of 1923.

The living conditions of the settlers were extremely difficult in the first few years. The plots that were granted them were often overgrown with weeds and generally devastated by war and with no buildings on them. The settlers often lacked the most primitive agricultural tools and equipment at a time when soldiers’ pockets were empty.

With the passage of time, the situation of the soldiers improved. By the 1930s, articles in the newspapers assessed the accomplishments of the settlers and their positive role in the Borderlands favourably and sometimes even enthusiastically. In the east where many ethnic groups such as Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians and Jews, as well as other smaller minorities came together as in a crucible, the settlers managed to coexist with the local population based on the principle of being good neighbours, rather than the relationship of “Polish Lord” to the Ukrainian or Belarusian “Peasant”.

The invasion by the Soviets onto Polish territory destroyed the Settlement of the Borderlands movement. The settlers and their families, with few exceptions, were expelled and deported into the heart of the inhuman Soviet land where they were decimated by disease and hunger. Some of them escaped to the free world in 1942 with the army of General Anders, but most of them only returned to their homeland after the end of the war. The settlers and their children were scattered all over the world.  

At the initiative of the children of Osada Krechowiecka in Wołyń, the first meeting of osadnicy (settlers) and their children was organized in 1983 in the scout hostel in Fenton, Lincolnshire. It was at this time that the Ognisko Rodzin Osadnikow Kresowych (Association of Military Settlers of Kresy) came into being with Czesław Pukacz, an osadnik at Osada Krechowiecka as its first president. From that time onward, annual meetings of the settlers and their families have taken place in Fenton in September, and from 1990, also in London in February/March. The love of their settlements, as well as the admiration and respect for their parents’ pioneering work, have led the members of the Association to publish the reminiscences of the “younger” generation of the settlers in the form of a book.

Source materials about the subject of the osady are sparse. The extensive archive of the Związek Osadników (Settlers’ Union) in Warsaw was destroyed during the German occupation and the fate of the chapters of the archives of the various Województwa (Provinces) and Powiat (counties) of the Związek Osadników which ended up in the hands of the Soviets, are still unknown to this point in time. Some documents relating to the Settlement Program can be found in the Centralny Archiwum Wojskowy (Central Military Archive) in Rembert and the Archiwum Akt Nowych (Archive of New Records) in Warsaw. Some periodicals of the Settlement Programme have survived in Warsaw libraries. These include: Osadnik (1923-25), Rolnik i Zagroda (1925-29), Misięcznik Osadniczy (1929-31), and the weekly Rolnik i Zagroda which resumed publication in 1938, as well as the reports of the activities of the Związek Osadników for the years 1931-33, 1933-35 and 1935-37.

In these circumstances, the reminiscences of the sons and daughters of the settlers contained in this book are an additional resource and constitute a valuable contribution to the history of the settlement program, as well as providing a window onto life in the Borderlands in that era. It is true that the authors of these reminiscences have reached back to a time of their lives more than 50 years ago, but this was the time of their carefree childhood days which were tragically interrupted by their deportation to Siberia. As a result, that time has remained frozen in their memories, preserving the freshness of a good photograph. These memories have undoubtedly been supplemented by the stories told by their parents who by talking about the difficult early days of the settlements, strove to evoke in their children pride in the accomplishments of their parents, as well as in their osada origins.

The editorial committee appointed to oversee the planning of the book decided to publish all the reminiscences sent to them, in all 128, of which 12 were written by surviving settlers or their wives. These last-mentioned twelve reminiscences are to be found in the first section of the book. The remaining chapters contain the reminiscences of children of the settlers organized according to the Województwo (Province) where their settlements were located. All the articles refer to osadnictwo wojskowe (settlements of military origin) with the exception of four articles that deal with osadnictwo ciwilne (civilian settlements). Most of the reminiscences are from the Województwo of Wolyń (71%) with 18% from the Białystok-Nowogródek region and 15% from the Polesie area and 3% from the Wilno (Vilnius) area. The text of the articles is preserved in its original form, omitting only those parts that do not relate to the Settlement Program.

OROK (Ognisko Rodzin Osadników Kresowych) - a short history

Pre-war  Memories from military settlements


(Click links on left.  Translations of the remaining recollections are in progress and will be uploaded in due course)

art nrName of Osada



Name of author




004Radziwiłłów-BemowoWołyńPiotr Jankowski

The story of hardships and working together to develop virgin land.  Jankowski tells of a week-long relay horse race.
005Rejmontów WołyńAnna Bielińska

Wife of a settler describes a life of hard work, enterprise, official duties as an elected administrator and the Settler’s Union. 
Wola Korybutowiecka 
Marta Korszańska

A wife recalls the social life in the settlement whilst building a future. 
Aleksandra Nowicki

He learnt to tap Bolshevik communications that led to victory at Lida.
010KluczNowogródJózef Wysocki

Drafted into the Russian Army, captured by the Germans, Wysocki fought for a free Poland but civilian life was not easy. 
016KuropolWilnoBolesław Polnik

Boyhood memories of home in Kresy.
T. C. Kryński

Making a living from the land amongst Belarusian and Ukrainian villages.
019ŻydomlaBiałystokAlicja PolaninOrechwa
A soldier awarded the Virtuti Militari in the Battle for Warsaw, settles in Kresy but ends up with a family of 4 generations in Chicago.
021AdampolNowogródJózef Rojek

A survivor recalls life as a 12-year-old and dreams of returning to Adampol to dig up treasured possessions.
029Mały Olżew, SzczytnikiNowogród
Alina KawulokDrozdowska
Starting from 15 families in the manor house, these osady developed into thriving communities.


Feliks Wdowczyk

Stanisław Świercz

034ChlewiszczePolesieHalina Papowszek


Settlers regarded by local population as the “salt of Poland”.



The author tells of mixed relationships with other nationalities in the area.
PolesieMaria WylotWoźniak
As in the song "The Spell of Polesie", life in the settlement has a charm of its own. 
039KopańPolesieMaria DoleckaKrólikowska
The author remembers many of the settlers and their functions within this Osada
040OsownicaPolesieJadwiga DabrowskaKorta
Birthplace of a  Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs.
044TrebiezówPolesieHalina Szulc

048AntoninWołyńAleksandra RymaszewskaJarmulska
Sixteen households and some of their fates.
Genowefa KwiecińskaStaniszewska
Amid many executions, Mr Staniszewski was saved by local Ukrainians.
Krystyna Ostrowska Chyży

A young girl taken on a journey to collect a copy of the "miraculous" image of Our Lady of Częstochowa for the new church on the settlement.
061DrozdówWołyńTeresa PalejDomalgalska
Osada in which settlers didn't get on well with each other.
062HallerowoWołyńZofia Bronowicka


063HallerowoWołyńJadwiga PawłowiczPleciak

064HallerowoWołyńIrena RybiczonekBudzyń

Mieczysław Więckowski

Courageous widow defends her property from thieves.
068JanówkaWołyńTadeusz Walczak

L. Cabut


Józef Pajdowski

Irena Bieżańska


076 KościuszkoWołyń

Jerzy Kondziela

​Alicja Kondziela


A detailed description of the geographical location, social makeup and community life at this Osada from the first pioneers until the outbreak of the 2nd World War.
Danuta Gradosielska 

078KrechowieckaWołyńDanuta GradosielskaMączka

Jan Kulik

The eldest brother of five describes life at the Osada for his family.
080Krechowiecka WołyńJanina MisikGóral

081KrechowieckaWołyńCzesław Pukacz

084Chorów i Kurhany
Stefania i Stanisław BorkowyKacperska
Stories from two settlements allocated to soldiers of the 21st Infantry Division and set amidst local Poles and Ukrainians.
086ŁanyWołyńJadwiga OsostowiczWnęk

087MaczkowceWołyńZofia Repa


Memories which bring on tears.
088MaczkowceWołynBronisław Wawrzkowicz

Extensive descriptions and photos of the osada. 
092NiweckWołyńKrystyna ZielkiewiczZelazik

093NiweckWołyńMarian Chlebik

OstrówWołynZyta SzulejewskaRzehak
A brief description of the Osada as Zyta was very young
Józef Ćwirko

098PruskiWołyńB. Stępniewski

Franczisek GallA settlements land purchased by the Polish Government  from a Russian landowner.
Rozalia GordonReich

Krystyna Walak

115SzyłyWołyńJerzy Rzegota-Januszajtis

A dismissed General gains the respect of settlers and local Ruthenians.  His actions save workers from an out-of-control bull.

116 TeklówkaWołynJanina KruszewskaPawlik
Janina describes her family and includes many photos of the Osada
Tadeusz Lachowski

119UłanówkaWołyńHalina BąbikRafał

124Wola PiłsudskiegoWołyńTeofila Rachel Kowalska 
Rachel describes a settlement of thirty families with rivalry between cavalrymen and infantrymen.
Witold Szymański

Regina WalczakSobieraj


142Poems"Kresy", "Miedza" 
Ewa OlszewskaPszczółkowska

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